Material Medica is an initial name of Pharmacognosy which is a complete and detailed study of physical, chemical and biological properties of substances that are derived from natural sources like plants and other living things. The substances that are derived from natural sources are known as Crude Drugs. This study acts as an important link between pharmacology and medicinal chemistry which also plays a vital role between ayurvedic and allopathic systems of medicines.
The global market for botanical and plant-derived drugs was valued at $23.2 billion in 2013 and $24.4 billion in 2014. This entire market is expected to reach $25.6 billion in 2015 and nearly $35.4 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.6% from 2015 to 2020
Current Market Analysis.
The term “Nutraceutical ” associates two words – “nutrient” (food component) and “pharmaceutical” ( medical drug).It is a food supplement that delivers health benefits in addition to its nutritional value. Nutraceutical may be a naturally nutrient-rich or medicinally active food or it may be a specific component of a food, such as the omega-3 fish oil that can be derived from salmon and other cold-water fish.
Scope of Nutraceuticals
The interaction of the pharmacognosy with modish chemical and biological techniques, and application of them in a clinical setting, has been led to the Clinical Pharmacognosy .This clinical pharmacognosy is capable of dealing with the Kampo medicine which is a traditional medicine of Japan. This plays a vital role in analysing standardising and also determines the medicines containing evidence of natural health products. The plants that produce a large amount of aroma and fragrance are aromatic plants these are used in perfumes and pharmaceutical industries. Synthesis of wide range of chemical compounds which performs major biological functions is named as medicinal plants.
The Analytical methods for natural products focusses on recently developed techniques with well and sophisticated features of analytical instruments namely HPLC, UV ,Infra red and NMR spectroscopy and others etc., this analytical methods are applied for the evaluation and quality control of raw materials and also the end products from natural sources. These analytical techniques are of importance in the standardisation of plant-based and multi-component formulations.
The global market for botanical and plant-derived drugs was valued at $23.2 billion in 2013 and $24.4 billion in 2014. This entire market is assumed to reach $25.6 billion in 2015 and apprx. $35.4 billion in 2020 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.6% from 2015 to 2020.
The study of medicines such as herbal, folk medicines and their usage in different culture groups, ethnics especially indigenous people. Ethnopharmacology views at sources of chemical agents and their storage and applications by different communities of people. The use of these active chemicals may serves to remove the toxic compounds and concentrates the active compound. Ethnomedicine includes herbal or traditional medicines followed by various people and their use of plants, microorganisms, minerals etc.
The subject that deals about the chemistry of plants such as physical, chemical and biological properties and their structure activity relationship is termed as medicinal plant chemistry. The active constituents present in these medicinal plants helps to cure diseases. The medicinal plants derived drugs work same as pharmaceutical drugs but less prone to side effects.
Plant signalling pathways
Biochemistry of plants
Current Research on Plant Chemistry
The combination and sum of the skills, practices, beliefs, remedies, superstitions and experiences that are prolonging since the previous generations, cultures to prevent and to cure a disease and also other mental problems and its symptoms is named as traditional medicine. When Traditional medicine competes with modern medicine, traditional medicine has minimal side effects and Traditional medicine is also long lasting.
A complete and a detailed study of biological, physical, chemical or any miscellaneous factor that effects any part of the living organism is known as toxicity and the study of these adverse effects on living organisms such as plants, animals etc., is known as Toxicology.
It is a therapy given to plants to maintain their health and to eradicate the diseases and symptoms causing to them is phytomedicine.It is also known as Plant medicine. Phytomedicine is used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative. It acts as a major link between Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology. In Phytomedicine, plant medications are chosen to secure the body's own particular capacities and resistant framework.
The selection of methods and developments that are applied for the growth of plant organs, cells, tissues in a nutrient medium under optimal sterile conditions is named as plant tissue culture and the utilisation of these living organisms and also other biological products for the manufacturing and production of the drugs is termed as biotechnology.Ahard beginning for the rapid development and enactment of biotechnology in agriculture was provided by achievements in plant tissue culture.
The substances with a chemical moiety are derived from plants known as phytochemicals. The detailed study of these phytochemicals is called as phytochemistry which describes the structures of large number of secondary metabolic compounds which are observed in plants. It consists of wide range of organic substances that are accumulated by plants and which further deals with the chemical structures, biosynthesis, metabolism, distribution and biological function of the substances.
Plant science refers to the botanical science which merges with the study of anatomy, taxonomy and also the morphological and physiological characters of plants. This plant science includes the study of various other branches such as developmental genetics, molecular genetics, proteomics, genomics, cell biology and other branches of biology. This plant science will increase the use of gene technology in agriculture.
The treatments that are used along with standard medical treatment but these are not considered as standard treatments are complementary medicines. In other case, if a nontraditional practice was used instead of conventional medicine are considered as alternative medicines.Acupuncture, massage, herbs are the qualities of complementary and alternative medicine.
These natural products play a critical role in identification of numerous medicines.A huge number of anti-infectives are based on natural products. The constituents of these natural products helps in numerous drug discovery. The pharmacological activity of these products are of therapeutic benefit in curing diseases.
A figure that is derived from the natural source by the plants and other living organisms is named as natural product. These natural products play a vital role in health care and curing of diseases. Atropine which is obtained from atropa belladonna, acts as a CNS stimulant. According to a recent survey conducted by WHO, about 121 drugs are from natural sources which are derived either directly or indirectly from plant.
Many traditional herbal medical practices have been discovered for the diagnosis, prevention and cure for various diseases. The formulation and manufacturing of these plant medicines involves some processes such as extraction process which is the basic step for plant medicine formulation. After the extraction the solvent is merged with certain excipients and blended to obtain suitable dosage form. Evaluation tests were performed for desired medicament.
The substances with a chemical moiety are derived from plants known as phytochemicals. The detailed study of these phytochemicals is called as phytochemistry. These phytochemicals have protective and disease curable properties. Some analytical techniques are applied to know the concentration of these chemical constituents such as namely Spectroscopy, Chromatography, X-Ray Crystallography are the technique that helps in detection and study of phytochemicals.
The verification or the testimonial of a drugs identity, purity and quality determination and also to detect the adulterant is termed as standardisation of herbal drug. This standardisation process includes various techniques like physical, chemical, biological and its morphological observations of the drugs.
The marine environment is a source of both biological and chemical entities. The drugs formulated through this marine source are called marine drugs. Marine drugs constitute high amount of therapeutic values. The process of developing and production of these drugs from sea is marine drug chemistry. Marine drugs are mostly used in prevention of cancer.
Cancer can be prevented by the use of drugs and other medications which reduce the risk of cancer but preventing a disease by use of drugs may probe for side effects. As natural products are of major interest as chemo preventive agents due to their low toxicity profiles. These natural products constitute a large number of vitamins, minerals and also dietary supplements, probiotics which acts as nutritional therapeutics and also as bioactive components of food.
A body that is derived from the natural source by the plants and other living organisms is named as natural product. These are prepared by chemical combination of both the semi and total amalgams. The term natural product was been prolonged for trade purpose for cosmetics and weight loss supplements and also for prevention of tumours and infections, cancer and diabetes etc. Natural products of more than 50% are approved by FDA.